Bosu, J.R. Cobbinah, J.D. Bot. Extensive trials of other species, mainly softwoods and Eucalypts, … According to IUCN7, Milicia species is categorized as one of the endangered valuable timber species. At 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, the suppression were 76.7%, 80% and 96.7% respectively while in the prophylactic; at the lowest dose of 250mg/kg, the extract suppressed parasite growth by 42.43%, 45.28%, 59.82% and 66.61% after treatment Twelve (2 week) weeding intervals minimized P. lata attack on Milicia excelsa during early growth. Many studies have attributed this variation in growth to the differences in climate of regions. Horse dung manure collected from polo club Ibadan when horses were fed fresh grasses only were applied to the M. excelsa seedlings after 2 weeks of transplanting at the rate of 5.0 t ha–1. This is in support with report by Paul and Weber24 that Astronium graveolens, Cedrela odorata and Terminalia amazonia planted in mixture with Zea mays and Cajanus cajan showed significantly superior growth performance over those in pure plantation. They are not grown in plantations but extractedfrom the natural forest at an unsustainable rate. Also, Bosu et al.13 found that planting M. excelsa or M. regia in a mixture with Terminalia superba was effective in reducing damage from P. lata attack. Fertility and birth are associated with it and its timber is used to make ceremonial drums and coffins. The leaves of are used as mulch and the tree serves a good shade or shelter and sometimes used as an avenue tree5. Milicia excelsa (Welw) C.C. These results provide scientific evidence showing the efficacy of M. excelsa leaves in wound healing. The tree is nitrogen fixing and the leaves are used for mulching. After some analysis the researchers found that the Milicia excelsa was inbreeding due to lack of proximity to other Milicia excelsa individuals. Many studies have attributed this variation in growth to the differences in climate of regions. Moreover, this study showed that 12 weeks weeding regime reduced the incidence of P. lata infestation. Similarly, the plots mixed with C. odorata and A. indica had the highest percentage Milicia seedling survival 24 months after transplanting. Get latest info on Teak Plants, Sagwan Plant, suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers, traders, wholesale suppliers with Teak Plants prices for buying. Web. The Federal College of Forestry Site is located on the latitude 7.50 N and longitude 3.90 E. The climate condition of the area is tropical with an annual rainfall range of 180-700 mm per annum while the annual temperature is 34.40°C the daily humility is about 60%17. Field infestation by P. lata in M. excelsa seedling was lower in 12 and 6 weeks weeding interval by 15.6 and 3.34%, respectively compared to 2 weeks weeding interval (Fig. Infestation and seedling survival were used as indices of effectiveness by subjecting data collected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey’s test. In this study, we analyzed the survival and growth of two timber species, Milicia excelsa (Welw.) In a study [5] it was seen that isolation was caused by one or more of the animals that are known for dispersal of Milicia excelsa (i.e. An application rate of 27000 Kg/ha was capable of enhancing the survivalof the Milicia excelsa seedlings by 87.50 percent over the control.6.1.3 Effect of poultry manure on the mean number of leaves of Miliciaexcelsa seedlingsPoultry manure also had a significant effect on the mean number of leaves and can thereforebe applied to Milicia excelsa … Iroko ( Milicia excelsa ) is a commercially important timber tree species formerly known by local people in Benin. Data were collected on Milicia height, stem girth and number of branches at monthly intervals and on number of galls and P. lata population density at 2 weeks interval until the end of the experiment following the same procedure applied on the previous experiment. Distribution of Milicia excelsa 453 Tuomela et al. The plots were maintained by weeding manually at 6 weeks intervals. Effect of mixed planting with companion plants on P. lata infestation on M. excelsa:Field infestation by P. lata was significantly (p<0.01) lower on M. excelsa seedlings mixed with Cedrela odorata and neem compared to control. These include Milicia excelsa, Entandrophragma spp. C.C. The plant is not self-fertile. The trunk is bare lower down with the first branch usually at least 20 metres (66 ft) above the ground. … In the south-western Central African Republic (annual rainfall 1500 mm; dry period 2 months) the average annual increment in diameter of Milicia excelsa trees is 0.57 cm; it decreases with age from 0.93 cm for trees with a diameter of less than 10 cm to 0.45 cm for trees with 110–120 cm diameter. In this study, mixed planting of Milicia with Cedrela odorata, A. indica (neem) and Pierreodendron africanum did not have significant effect in reducing P. lata infestation. acephala) successfully reduced whitefly infestation. dispersal in a low-density wind-pollinated tropical tree, Molecular Ecology, 6-10, Taylor, Daniel; Kankam, Bright; Wagner, Michael, 1. Assuming an extraction rate of 172,983 m3/yr and a growth rate of 28,650 m3/yr, it is estimated Phytalyma lata infestation on M. excelsa seedling was lower in 12 weeks weeding regime by 15% as compare to 2 weeks regime. [9] The people that conducted this study found that it would be a good method to use to specifically fight against the slow decline of the Iroko species. The finding of Agyeman (1994)that Milicia has its highest relative growth rate at 4 months in 42% of full irradiance was supported by our result that the individual gap with the greatest height increment was at 53% of full irradiance, although heights overall in large and medium-sized gaps were not significantly different. Milicia excelsa is widely spread across Africa, M. regia are found mainly in the wet forest zone while M. excelsa have a preference for the dry zones1. The high rate of exploitation coupled … Two weeks weeding regime had the highest stem girth (0.58 mm), followed by 6 weeks weeding regime (0.45 mm) and the least was the control (0.35 mm) (Table 3). Survival and growth of mixed plantations of Milicia excelsa and Terminalia superba 9 years after planting in Ghana [An article from: Forest Ecology and Management] [P.P. This, over time, has resulted in the tree that we see today commonly known as Iroko. INTRODUCTION. [2] Some populations, especially plantations, are attacked by a gall mite. African teak is distributed across tropical central Africa. The plots were weeded manually with hoe and cutlass according to the weeding regime stipulated for it. 'Traditional Agroforestry Systems As Tools For Conservation Of Genetic Resources Of Milicia Excelsa Welw. 25, 2009 28 INFLUENCE OF PHYTOLYMA LATA (HOMOPTERA: PSYLLIDAE) ON SEEDLING GROWTH OF MILICIA EXCELSA 1V. The experiments were laid in a Randomized Block Design (RBD), growth parameters (height, stem diameter and number of branches) and P. lata infestation (number of galls and size of galls) on M. excelsa were observed at two weeks intervals. The critical energy release rate is computed with a modified Mixed Mode Crack Growth (MMCG) specimen. The potential contribution of agroforestry systems to the management and genetic resources conservation in iroko (Milicia excelsa), an important and valuable timber tree species in sub-Saharan Africa, is addressed in this paper. Mixed planting of Milicia could probably reduce the P. lata infestation as reported by earlier researchers if transplanted in existing/old mono plantation of other tree crops not in a new plantation where the mixed trees are of the same age with the Milicia plant. It is one of two species (the other being Milicia regia) yielding timber commonly known as African teak, iroko, intule, kambala, moreira, mvule, odum and tule. Guyot et al.12 reported that infestation by Dryocosmus kuriphilus on chestnut trees Castanea sativa was lower on stands with higher tree species richness or diversity . spp.) Harvesting of Milicia species is mainly done from the natural forest, however, replacement has proven to be insufficient to match the rate of exploitation mainly due to their susceptibility to Phytolyma gall attack6. establish quite accurate growth ranges that could prove useful for determining rotations between two logging opera-t i o n s . Each block was allotted to one weeding regime and labeled accordingly. 1 Milicia excelsa (Moraceae) is an important timber tree in much of Africa and when grown in monocultural plantations has been subject to nearly complete destruction by gall‐forming psyllids in the genus Phytolyma. Iroko ( Milicia excelsa ) is a commercially important timber tree species formerly known by local people in Benin. Examples are Milicia excelsa and Afromosia spp which are near ... has been observed that the rate of encroachment of these forest reserves is quite high and the damage being done … Exploitation is often unsustainable - in the 1980's, for example, the extraction rate of Milicia regia and Milicia excelsa in Ghana was estimated to be about 173,000 m³ per year, whereas the regeneration rate was estimated to be only about 29,000 m³ per year. [9] Iverson et al.10 and Castagneyrol et al.11 reported that more diverse plant associations are less prone to insect damage including in the forests. agroforestry systems as tools for conservation of genetic resources of Milicia In contrast, Wagner et al.14 reported that Milicia planted in mixture with Gliricidium sepium reduced gall formation in the mixed plots compared to the pure Milicia stands (Mono plantation). Attempt to establish Milicia plantation has been constrained by Phytolyma lata attack on the young plants which subsequently result to gall formation and dieback of the plant8. These translated to an increase of 14.83 and 10.18% in seedlings weeded at 2 weeks and 4 weeks weeding regime (interval) respectively above the control by 16 weeks after transplanting. (sapelli, sipo, kosipo and tiama) and iroko (Milicia excelsa). An application rate of 27,000 Kg/ha was capable of enhancing the growth of the Milicia excelsa seedlings by 10.1cm over the control. [1], In West Africa, African teak is considered to be a sacred tree. excelsa Welw. Milicia excelsa is a tree species from the genus Milicia of the family Moraceae. M. excelsa is widely distributed across tropical African forests in West, A large, dry deciduous tree that can reach up to 50 m in height, native to tropical Africa, where it grows in lowland moist forests. Six-months old M. excelsa seedlings of uniform heights (20 cm) collected from screen house and six months old seedlings of Azadirachta indica, Cedrela odorata and Pierreodendron africanum collected from Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN) nursery were planted in binary mixture. 1). The timber is very strong, quite hard and long-lasting and the most important timber in international trade2. Legaspi et al.23 also reported that intercropping mustard (Brassica juncea) as a companion crop for collards (Brassica oleraceae var. Iroko (Milicia excelsa and M. regia) is a valuable hardwood from the humid tropics of Africa, and is currently under threat of extinction because of over-exploitation and poor regeneration. Guyot et al.12 confirmed that tree diversity has the potential to reduce the impact of invasive forest pests at the stand level. Background and Objective: Iroko gall bug, Phytolyma lata Scott. Data were collected on the plant height (cm), stem girth (mm), number of branches at monthly intervals and on number of galls and P. lata population at 2 weeks interval until two years. Experimental site: Field trials were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Federal College of Forestry Ibadan, for two years (2010-2011). Khaya senegalensis, Khaya grandifolia Mansonia altissima, Albizia zygia, ... [12], height growth of Balanites aegyptiaca can be very slow at the seedlings stage, but at the saplings stage, the growth rate increases drastically. It ranged … It is resistant to termites and is used for construction, furniture, joinery, panelling, floors and boats. Iroko is a major timber in international trade; during the 1960s Côte d’Ivoire exported about 55,000 m³ of iroko logs and 6000 m³ of iroko sawnwood per year, and Ghana 28,000 m³ of sawnwood. Specifically, soil characteristics and rainfall played a major role in the morphological variation of trunk growth of Milicia excelsa. This paper therefore investigated the early growth … The growth of P. elata was faster than the growth of M. excelsa and a negative growth rate was observed for M. excelsa at low irradiance . A large, dry deciduous tree that can reach up to 50 m in height, native to tropical Africa, where it grows in lowland moist forests. irradiance. Bosu, Paul P. et al. The total height, collar diameter and number of leaves were monitored fortnightly, while the Relative Growth Rates (RGRs) for height and diameter were estimated after 24 weeks. Conclusion: It is concluded that planting M. excelsa in mixture with companion plants was promising for P. lata management and 12 weeks weeding regime reduced P. lata attack on Milicia excelsa. Iroko (Milicia excelsa and M. regia) is a valuable hardwood from the humid tropics of Africa, and is currently under threat of extinction because of over-exploitation and poor regeneration.Attempts to establish Milicia plantations in Africa have been hampered by gall-forming psyllids of the genus Phytolyma.This study investigated the impact of Phytolyma on Milicia planted in … Bats, rodents, and birds). Milicia regia is considered to be a priority for in situ conservation[299. Statistical analysis: Data collected on growth parameter were analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey’s test while data on number of galls and population density of P. lata were transformed using square root transformation. establish quite accurate growth ranges that could prove useful for determining rotations between two logging opera-t i o n s . Distribution and habitat. Berg In Benin'. The structure and dynamics of traditional agroforestry systems and the ecological structure of Milicia excelsa … It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. It is often protected when the surrounding bush is cleared, ritual sacrifices take place underneath it and gifts are given to it. N. Bourland, O. J. Hardy, M. Heuertz, G. Mahy, and J.-L. Doucet, 2009, Spatial Figure 2a and b: Mean (with S.E. All the analysis were performed using ASSISTAT version 7.6 beta statistical assistance19. Female trees have flower spikes measuring 5 to 6 centimetres (2.0 to 2.4 in) long by 2 cm (0.8 in) wide, green with prominent styles. In Kenya, the species is now rare and endangered. Attempts to establish Milicia plantations in Africa have been hampered by gall-forming psyllids of the genus Phytolyma. Because of its importance to the environment there has been research done on how to conserve Iroko. Product Details. Berg Moraceae is an important economic tree species in West Africa. Therefore, this study assessed the effect of mixed planting and weeding regime on the infestation of P. lata on Milicia excelsa in Southwest Nigeria. Because of the highly attractive technological properties of its wood and its multipurpose uses, the species was subjected to intensive human pressure. show more data (8) show less data (8)comments (0) comments (0)| | | | Milicia species also play important roles in erosion control and in enhancement of soil fertility. Abstract The effects of stock plant age, coppicing, cutting stem length and node position on the rooting ability of leafy stem cuttings of Milicia excelsa were investigated using a non-mist propagation system in Ghana. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. There is evidence that some of the variation that is described above amongst individuals is due to the variation in the environment. This study will help divulge the impact of companion plants on P. lata infestation. On the contrary, Nowak et al.27 reported that competing vegetation was an important factor in population stability of some insect species such as the pine tip moths. excelsa demonstrated a dose-dependent chemo-suppression in early and residual infections. To accurately estimate the genetic diversity and population structure for improved conservation planning of Milicia excelsa tree, 212 individuals from twelve population samples covering the species' range in Benin were surveyed at seven specific microsatellite DNA loci. The iroko tree (Milicia excelsa) is known to the world as one of the most sought-after African timbers. Weeding regimes (2, 4, 6 and 12 weeks) were allotted in a separate plot planted with pure stands of M. excelsa seedlings at the spacing of 2×2 m in three replicates. Similarly, Pinus silvestris and Quercus humilis were found favored by the presence of a dense under storey, particularly when shrubs were higher than seedlings30,31. Adult M. excelsa trees in the forest do not produce sufficient natural regeneration to maintain the stock reduced by frequent felling. 1. The species is a large deciduous tree growing up to 50 metres (160 ft) high. It is found in Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Berg in Benin, Agroforestry Systems, 17-26, "3.3 The symbolic and sacred significance of particular forest resources", International Federation of Building and Wood Workers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Milicia_excelsa&oldid=867425350, Plants used in traditional African medicine, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 November 2018, at 17:04. 2). Of all the factors listed, slow growth rate is the main factor militating against propagation of Milicia in the study area; Oyo (58%), Osun (42%), Ogun (36%) Ondo (46%) and Ekiti (22%), followed by lack of seeds for propagation Oyo (34%), Osun (26%), Ogun (16%), Ondo (8%) and Ekiti (30%) (Table 5). C.C. Known locally as iroko, the authors note that exploitation of the trees have led to a decrease in its abundance. R. Cobbinah and 2M. regia, Moraceae, theirokos) are among the most useful indigenous rain forest treespecies in Africa. The rate of disappearance of Milicia excelsa in the forests is alarming with West Africa being the hardest hit by the trend. Dainou, K., E. Laurenty, G. Mahy, O. J. Hardy, Y. Brostaux, N. Tagg, and J.-L. Doucet. Inbreeding could contribute to why this species is moving closer to being on the “Threatened” conservation list. Their activities interrupt plant physiological processes causing growth reduction and killing the seedlings in most cases9,8. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) on P. lata infestation between mono plantation and mixed plantation. Riddoch et al. Milicia excelsa planted in mixture with C. odorata significantly (p<0.05) showed higher plant height and stem diameter than those in pure stands. population of Ghana is about 16.8 million (1995) with a growth rate average of 3.3% per annum. The slowest-growing tree is said to be the cedar tree. Its range extends from Guinea-Bissau in the west to Mozambique in the east. The highest plant height, stem girth and number of branches of Milicia was obtained on plot mixed with Cedrela odorata with mean value of 72.80 cm, 0.94 mm and 1.79, respectively (Table 1). More importantly, agroforestry promotes the growth of any plant species by taking pressure off remnant forests that usually have to repopulate threatened species on their own. The IUCN has this species on the Red List under ‘Near Threatened’ (BIZOUX, J.-P., 2009). Nichols, E Nkrumah] on Amazon.com. In this study, daily application of M. excelsa ointment enhanced wound contraction, epithelialization and fibroplasia. A row consisted of five seedlings and was replicated five times giving a total 25 Milicia plants and 25 plants of other tree species in each sub plot in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) The control plot was mono plantation of Milicia excelsa at the same spacing of 3×3 m2. Average tree density varied from 1 to 7 stems ha⁻¹ with diversity index ranging from 2.6 to 2.9. It can tolerate an annual rainfall of less than 70 centimetres (28 in) or six months of drought as long as there is a stream or a ground water source nearby.[2]. Berg Moraceae is an important economic tree species in West Africa. Evaluation of weeding regimes for the control of Phytolyma lata on Milicia excelsa:Six-months old healthy seedling of M. excelsa raised in the screen house were transplanted in a 10×30 m2 experimental plot at the spacing of 2×2 m at the rate of one seedling per stand and five seedlings per row in three replicates. It is also very resistant to treatments with preservatives although the sapwood is porous to water. C. C. Berg au sud-est du Cameroun Daïnou, Kasso; Mahy, Grégory; Doucet, Jean-Louis. Seeds for sale starting at € 4.50. Similarly, Plath et al.21 reported that higher herbivore damage to Tabebui rosea was found in mixed tree diversity than in mono plantation/stands. The fruit are long, wrinkled and fleshy with the small seeds embedded in the pulp.[2]. Similarly, the plots mixed with C. odorata and neem had the highest percentage survival 24 months after transplanting. Milicia regia is a deciduous Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 25 m (82ft) at a fast rate. The timber is used for construction of ships and barrels because of its high resistance to bad weather4. Similarly, there were significant differences (p<0.01) among the treatments on the stem girth . Four week old seedlings of Milicia excelsa (A. CHEV) C.C BERG and Nauclea diderrichii (DE WILD and TH. 52: 227 (1982). It prefers moist soil. It was found that agroforestry helps increase habitat for plants and animals. R. Wagner 1 Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research KNUST … Reaching enormous heights of 50 m (164 ft), iroko is a canopy tree of coastal forests and wet savannas throughout tropical Africa, though overexploitation has narrowed its range. The tree yields a strong, dense and durable dark brown hardwood timber. The wood is hard, durable and termite resistant and resembles teak. RESULTS Comparisons of the results highlighted a mean diameter growth range of 4-5 mm/year for E n t a n d r o p h r a g m a s p . Wagner et al.26 reported that agro forestry and mixed species plantation approach could be used to successfully manage Phytolyma lata, implying that the over story shade is beneficial to M. excelsa at some stages. It is one of two species (the other being Milicia regia) yielding timber commonly known as African teak, iroko, intule, kambala, moreira, mvule, odum and tule. Approximately 52.23% of M. excelsa survival was recorded while the least M. excelsa survival recorded in sole plantation (control) was 24% (Table 2). Two species of Milicia are found in Africa; M. excelsa and M. regia.They are recognized together as Iroko. Poultry manure can therefore be applied to Milicia excelsa seedlings for enhancing the species primary growth in the nursery as well as for its plantation establishment. This present study reveals that planting of M. excelsa with companion plants of the same age was not highly promising in reducing Phytolyma lata infestation on Milicia seedlings. In a study done on the mineralization of Milicia excelsa,[8] it was observed that in certain conditions Milicia acts as a carbon sink. Therefore, 12 weeks weeding interval can be recommended to reduce P. lata infestation on Milicia plantation at the early stage and further studies on planting of Milicia in mixture with old companion plants in plantation is required to confirm their potential in reducing P. lata infestation. The authors explore the literature on two native tree species of commercial value in central Africa:Milicia excelsa and Milicia regia. Bull. Milicia excelsa (Welw) C.C. Underplanting and planting in clear-felled areas with Maesopsis eminii has proved more successful, but after 9 years the rate of growth appears to be slackening. Two species of Milicia are found in Africa; M. excelsa and M. regia. Epub 2012 Aug 21. All loci were variable, with the mean number of alleles per locus ranging from 5.86 to 7.69. Thus a new assumption for their control may arrive. M. excelsa extract at 100, 50, 25 and 12.5 mg/ml inhibited the growth of S. aureus but not P. aeruginosa. African teak is distributed across tropical central Africa. The latex is used as an anti-tumour agent and to clear stomach and throat obstructions. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the effect of mixed planting with C. odorata and neem on the percentage mortality and survival of M. excelsa. species growth performance as well as its survival rate in plantation establishments (Irvine, 1961). C.C. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. Wagner et al.14 also reported that deep over story shade during the early stages of growth can reduce Phytolyma gall formation, prevent dieback and associated loss of seedlings. Am J Bot. The percentage infestation of M. excelsa mixed with C. odorata. The effects of vitamins (half-strength Murashige and Skoog) and growth regulators (benzyladenine (BA) and NAA at 4.4+0.54 or 2.2+0.27 µsmallcap˜M) on axillary bud elongation (ABE) and shoot growth … The wood is a highly valued commercial timber in Africa, for which demand is large. These red/far-red light were regulated by shading the various replicate … The control experiment had the least number of galls, sizes of galls and population density of P. lata. Moreover, Sun et al.28,29 reported that low levels of competing vegetation are often associated with higher tip moth infestation rates. K. Agyeman, 1D. IJFR International Journal of Forestry Research 1687-9376 1687-9368 Hindawi Publishing Corporation 210179 10.1155/2009/210179 210179 Research Article Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of a Threatened African Tree Species, Milicia excelsa, Using Nuclear Microsatellites DNA Markers Ouinsavi Christine 1, 2 … The trees are dioecious. Am J Bot. All loci were variable, with the mean number of alleles per … [3] A study has reported that most of the remaining Iroko trees in Benin were conserved on farms (Ouinsavi and Sokpon, 2008). Exploitation is often unsustainable - in the 1980's, for example, the extraction rate of Milicia regia and Milicia excelsa in Ghana was estimated to be about 173,000 m³ per year, whereas the regeneration rate was estimated to be only about 29,000 m³ per year. Benth. ... Growth/development: transplant seedlings into pots 3 weeks after germination. 2012 Sep;99(9):1453-63. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1200147. Stem girth (mm) was measured with the aid of veneers caliper. The potential contribution of agroforestry systems to the management and genetic resources conservation in iroko ( Milicia excelsa ), an important and valuable timber tree species in sub-Saharan Africa, is addressed in this paper. These specific conditions are characterized by presence of oxalate, bacteria for oxalate oxidation and a dry season, which are common conditions in which Milicia tends to grow. Apart from strong climate oscillation during the … Suitable pH: acid, neutral … Milicia excelsa is a large deciduous tree 30-50 m high, with a diameter of 2-10 m; bark thick, pale, ash grey to nearly black, then brown, usually fairly rough and flaking off in small scales, but seldom fissured; slash thick, fibrous, cream coloured with brown spots, exuding white latex; trunk lofty, straight and cylindrical, up to 20 m … . https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=je.2017.81.86. Poultry manure can therefore be applied to Milicia excelsa seedlings for enhancing the species primary growth … Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Ghana J. Forestry, Vol. Growth rate is medium; slower than Khaya spp. Mvule and Prunus africanum). Relative growth rate of Milicia was highest at 42% of full irradiance (Agyeman 1994). Berg (iroko, Moraceae) and Pericopsis elata (Harms) Meeuwen (assamela, Fabaceae), in enriched logging gaps and in plantations. Four separate experiments tested respectively: (i) cuttings obtained from 1-, 2-, 10- and 20-yr … The structure and dynamics of traditional agroforestry systems and the ecological structure of Milicia excelsa … The leaves and the ashes also have medicinal uses.[7]. In contrast, Bosu et al.13 reported that deep shade can minimize the quantum of photosynthetic radiation needed for growth, which can result in seedlings becoming etiolated and eventually dying. Ouinsavi, Christine, and Nestor Sokpon. Belg. Number of galls on the test plants was assessed by direct counting of the galls at 2 weeks intervals while size of gall was measured with the aid of thread which was later stretched on meter rule to determine the actual length. Therefore, it is extremely valuable timber, used especially for quality indoor and outdoor furniture. The introduction of Milicia excelsa into plantations as a native species can help decrease the exploitation rate in Ghana since it will reduce the high dependency on the natural forest for Milicia excelsa … RESULTS Comparisons of the results highlighted a mean diameter growth range of 4-5 mm/year for E n t a n d r o p h r a g m a s p . The results were recorded as 52.23% of M. excelsa seedling survival, followed by plot mixed with P. africanum (28.02%) while 24% sole plantation was recorded. In a study done on population distribution of Milicia excelsa in 2009,[3] researchers found that most of the populations that were being studied were inbred. It takes 150 years to grow four inches. and Mvule (Milicia excelsa) and thus render the investment unprofitable. An experimental plot 30×30 m2 was cleared manually with cutlass and divided into four sub plots. Similarly, Bosu et al.13 also reported that planting Milicia excelsa and M. regia with a mixture of Terminalia superb was found effective in reducing damage from P. lata attack. When forests are felled, isolated trees are often left standing and the tree regenerates easily. Specifically, soil characteristics and rainfall played a major role in the morphological variation of trunk growth of Milicia excelsa. A study in Ghana found that this tree relies heavily on the straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) for seed dispersal, over 98% of the seed falling to the ground having passed through its gut. In the small gaps, seedlings will likely continue to succumb to competition for … 2012 Sep;99(9):1453-63. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1200147.