Structural explanations argue that the international or regional context within which the potentially irredentist state operates will play a large role in determining whether such a project is initiated and the conditions under which it ends. This often occurs when combining two or more specific boundaries to create a larger state. it holds the debate of a Jewish historical possession and ethnic minority in 1946 versus the historical possession of the Palestinians and their ethnic majoriyt in 1946. Two types, exclusionary and inclusionary. He also claimed that whoever controlled the heartland, controls Eurasia, and hence the entire world. The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act. If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just tap on the card to take it out of the box. What device should I use to take the 2020 AP Human Geography exam? Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Additional Geography Flashcards . AP Human Geography Samples and Commentary from the 2019 Exam Administration: Free-Response Question 3 - Set 1 Keywords exam information; exam resources; teacher resources; scoring information; scoring commentary; free-response samples; student samples; \r\n\r\nAP Human Geography Samples and Commentary from the 2019 Exam Administration: Free-Response Question 3 - Set 1 Start studying AP Human Geography Vocab Unit 4 Examples. Given the complexity of irredentism, there likely are multiple and overlapping explanations for any particular case. You would need to create a new account. Save. The final explanation for irredentism is derived from the insights of constructivism, which holds generally that the social construction of ideas and concepts is instrumental in determining political outcomes. Omissions? Located in China, Japan and Korea opened to foreign trade by the Unequal Treaties.i.e., imposed by Western naval powers and Japan on militarily helpless Asian states. Examples of Empires. For a long time, human geography has maintained four principal divisions, including political, cultural, economic, and social. Irredentism and devolution are two processes that alter the distribution of power in a country or region. The second constructivist argument focuses on the ways in which the irredentist claims are justified in a society. This justification includes the arguments that assert the group’s right and obligation to unify the country and the proper means by which to achieve this goal. 2020 AP Test Changes Due to COVID-19. • Garibaldi and the unification of Italy • Attempts by the Somali Republic to incorporate the Ogaden • MiitifSihShMoroccan acquisition of Spanish Sahara • Efforts by the Third Reich to expand Germany’s borders so as to encompass all German-speaking peoples in … Fragmented States . Despite the numerous potential cases of irredentism, and the long history of these claims’ sparking armed conflict, there has been little agreement on its causes, dynamics, or resolution. ex) Kurds, Berbers, Palestinians, Kashmir's, Sikhs, Tibetans, Saharawis, Basques. Description. A central force that is exerted on all objects, and directed away from the centre of rotation, divisive in nature, An attitude that unifies people and enhances support for the state Ex: Communist Russia, a region controlled exclusively by a small urban centre, usually having sovereignty. To incorporate (territory) into an existing political unit such as a country, state, county, or city. Examples of irredentism. In most cases, this focuses on the relative support in the international system for state sovereignty versus national self-determination. An isogloss is a boundary which separates two different languages or two variations in the same language. the belief that the U.S. would to expand from Atlantic Seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. Privacy Policy and AP Human Geography: A Study Guide is designed to help you prepare for the exam by giving you a sound footing in human geography concepts and topics. The title given to the dividing line between democratic western Europe and Communist eastern Europe following the second world war. During the early years of the Wars of Yugoslav Succession, the international community did little other than rhetorical condemnation to stop Croatia’s and Serbia’s irredentist projects. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Because there are no objective criteria for classifying nation, usuage of the term is political and controverisal. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). They are popular because of their economy, political freedom, and opportunity. Nonetheless, five explanatory categories can be identified: structural, realist, rational choice, domestic, and constructivist. term used to a nation, minority ethnic group without a country. STUDY. Syria is o the N and the E, Israel is to the S. It's government is based on a community-based power-sharing mechanism. However, these territories could also be considered “unredeemed,” and therefore, these cases can fall under the category of irredentism. Deserts are effective because they are hard to cross and sparsely inhabited. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. Read these flashcards and learn about human geography and take the quiz to see what you learned. Historically, they have often been part of larger cultural areas, as in ancient Greece (Athens, Sparta and Corinth), the extension of a nation's sovereignty over territory beyond its borders by the establishment administrative dependencies in which indigenous populations are directly ruled or displaced. Spell. Created in 1652 when whites came to South Africa. A zone that extends 200 nautical miles from the coast of the country. According to the latter argument, decision makers will initiate an irredentist conflict to divert the attention of their population from domestic problems. MM_Richards. Irredentism definition is - a political principle or policy directed toward the incorporation of irredentas within the boundaries of their historically or ethnically related political unit. Some were peaceful struggles while others became violent. • Define the terms irredentism and devolution. It manifests both at a cultural level, but may also be a formal part of the dogma of particular religious groups. Makes communication difficult. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack LEFT ARROW - move card to the Don't know pile. A disagreement over the possession or control of land between two or more states or over the possession for reasons such as natural resources, It can be seperated into five categories- compact, fragmented, elongated, prorupt, perforated, Attachment to or protection of a territory or domain. Terms of Service. You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows: If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they Irredentism is related to, but distinct from, secession. The title was given by Sir Winston Churchill during a lecture series and it had a contemporary in Asia, the Bamboo Curtain. The reduction in tensions between Hungary, on the one hand, and Romania and Slovakia, on the other, was associated with the consolidation of democracy in these countries, whereas nearly all irredentist conflicts were initiated by authoritarian regimes. Your best preparation for the exam is to know your stuff. Russia and the Heartland The Soviet Union Russia has always been a good example of this theory since it happens to be right on top of the Heartland. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Regulated trade and colonization in Africa. Home Embed All AP Human Geography Resources . Under modern usage of the term, in many cases, an irredentist movement is referred to as creating a “Greater X,” with the “X” being the name of a country or state—for example, the quest for a Greater Serbia was in part responsible for the Wars of Yugoslav Succession during the 1990s, and the Greater Romania project (România Mare) was partially responsible for Romania’s siding with the Axis powers during World War II. In the first case, military weakness vis-à-vis the target state will force the irredentist country to relinquish its claims; in contrast, relative military strength will precipitate such a project. 1. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Undergraduate 1. Desertification AP Human Geography - Varsity Tutors. Cultural Geography conflicts Harper College. The study of the effects of economic geography on the powers of the state. The process is usually used to turn “too close to call” states into a party’s favor. Mountainous country in Western Asia on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean sea. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. 32. Human geography looks at the impact and behaviour of people and how they relate to the physical world. AP Human Geography . in conflict over Taiwan, the restoration of Israel to Jewish Nationals,and other areas of conflic. state to form its own independent state or a minority group that seeks annexation by a Create your own flash cards! The first asserts that the type of national identity that is dominant in a particular state or country will influence the degree to which it will become irredentist: An ethnic identity emphasizes the unity of the culturally based country across political boundaries and lends itself to the promotion of altering borders to realize a physical union of the country; a civic national identity is political in nature, usually tied to a preexisting state, and is therefore more easily limited to status quo boundaries. PLAY. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The importance of irredentism in international relations is based on the intersection between nationalism and the causes of war; because such a movement invariably means taking land from another state, irredentist claims have been known to provoke ethnic conflicts and territorial aggression. View APHG 7.09.docx from AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY 2103400 at Florida Virtual School. For details read our Shapes of States . Activity 6 Regional Scenarios Group 7-- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/ . Make sure to remember your password. The movement of American/European colonies gaining independence. a) identify examples and analyze, AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY c. Irredentism, use examples of human welfare indicators to distinguish between relatively developed and less. retry. AP Human Geography: Political Geography Vocab. a country which is formally independant but under heavy influence or control by another country. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Either way, this theory has definitely had an influence on military thinking. David Araya Ap Human Geography 3/4/19 Assignment 7.09 Irredentism and devolution are two processes that alter the distribution of power in a country or region. It has to do with voting. The term irredentism is derived from the Italian word irredento (“unredeemed”). They are quite common throughout the world and consistently make major headlines. Words to know:-A state is separated from it's neighbors by a boundary.-A boundary is an invisible line marking the extent of a states territory.-A compact state is a state that's distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly. a political ideology that focuses on the interests of a particular region or group of regions, whether traditional or formal (administrative divisions, country subdivisions, political divisions, subnational units). The first argument holds that ethnically homogeneous states are more likely to be irredentist because the populations of ethnically divided states will be unwilling to support a project that benefits only one group and might have the effect of altering the ethnic balance of the state if successful. For example, given the serious discordance between ethnicity and statehood in nearly all African states, it should not be surprising that the only substantial irredentist conflict was the one launched by ethnically homogeneous Somalia. A position that promotes the annexation of territory in pursuit of ethnic homogeneity or on the basis of claims to past ownership. Shaking hands when meeting someone. A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality. In the map below, the red line is an isogloss representing variations in the pronunciation of the German word “ich” in different regions. Test. Notable examples of irredentism include Nazi Germany’s claims on the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia; the “Megali Idea” that sought to create a Greater Greece; China’s desire to reincorporate the territories lost during periods of historical weakness; Somalia’s invasion of Ethiopia during the Ogaden War of 1977–78; the attempt by Hungary to reverse the 1920 Treaty of Trianon and … For free examples of free-response questions, check here for the actual questions posed in the 2019 AP Human Geography exam and here for those posed in the 2018 AP Human Geography exam. Want to own these as PDFs for your LMS and skip the ads? Balkanization 2. devolution 3. centrifugal forces 4. perforated state 5. median line principle 6. concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves. In some instances, states have gone so far as to incorporate irredentist claims directly into their constitution. Inclusionary is meant to facilitate trade and movement, such as the US/Canada boarder. The second explanation argues that democratic states are less likely to have irredentist-type conflicts between them because of increased institutional restraints on launching an irredentist project; enhanced protection for minority groups, which undermines the reasons for moving to protect one’s diaspora; membership or possible membership in international organizations that prohibit such claims (e.g., North Atlantic Treaty Organization [NATO] or the European Union); and the dynamics of democratic peace theory, in which democratic states tend to resolve their disputes peacefully. AP Human Geography. AP Human Geography 7.09: Distribution of Power A. Irredentism a. are in the same box the next time you log in. Outer countries usually have less development and are poorer countries. Take a look at the Soviet Union. a method of decision-making in political community, where power is heldby appointed officials or representatives elected by the legislature of people of the member states. Somewhat questionable cases include those without a direct ethnic component but rather based solely on historical claims, such as Argentina’s invasion of the British-populated Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) in 1982 or Serbian claims to Kosovo, which was the birthplace of Serbian nationalism but later was populated overwhelmingly by ethnic Albanians. A. Irredentism is when members of a movement have deemed the goal unachievable and devolution is when power is An organization that transcends national borders and takes an active roll in the affairs of two or more nations. Home FAQ's FRICTION OF DISTANCE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX: one example of an alternate measure of development., AP Human Geography Name_____ Unit I Vocabulary This can be a written example … The process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicity’s. It contains an infinite potential with regard to the understanding and advancement of the biology and society of all life. The only large landmass, in the world, that is not part of a sovereign state. Subject. When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, tap "retry" to try those cards again. Write. To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity. 32 key terms in the APHG study of political geography. Two arguments fall under this rubric: elite conflict and diversionary theory. Contain several discontinuous pieces of territory. Use these flashcards to help memorize information. (see UNCLOS). the great lakes between Canada and the U.S. a state that encompasses a very small land area, A homogenous group of people with no political boundaries. Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries. English geographer and geopolitician who argued that physical and human geography should be treated as a single discipline. Professor of Political Science, North Dakota State University. Rational choice accounts examine the decision-making processes of elites that initiate an irredentist conflict for instrumental purposes. Notable examples of irredentism include Nazi Germany’s claims on the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia; the “Megali Idea” that sought to create a Greater Greece; China’s desire to reincorporate the territories lost during periods of historical weakness; Somalia’s invasion of Ethiopia during the Ogaden War of 1977–78; the attempt by Hungary to reverse the 1920 Treaty of Trianon and reclaim territories in Slovakia, Romania, and Yugoslavia during World War II; and the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the Armenian-populated Nagorno-Karabakh region. The potential for irredentism can be reduced if this justification is somehow undermined, perhaps by reconceptualizing the country’s history, the physical boundaries of the country, or the place of the country in the international community. characterized by or constituting a form of government in which power is held by one central authority; The maritime fringe of a country or continent. a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which by its upright existence is thought to prevent conflict between them. The United Nations is an example. When applied to the issue of irredentism, two arguments emerge. We do not share your email address with others. A term used to describe an ethnic group that wants to secede from a multinational state to form its own independent state or a minority group that seeks annexation by a culturally similar sovereign state. A weak Albania had little chance of forcibly altering its border with Yugoslavia, whereas a strong Nazi Germany could pressure France and Great Britain to force territorial revisions on Czechoslovakia. Irredentism, territorial claim based on a national, ethnic, or historical basis. Geography. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. If you knew the answer, tap the green Know box. It comprises 14 million square kilometer’s. It is almost always the city which physically encompasses the offices and meeting places of the seat of government and fixed by law, but there are a number of exceptions. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. eg. Was a foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of Communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a this fashion. Format, stimulus, no stimulus,command terms, answering the blended question. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out. 2 types: those separated by water, and those separated by other countries. A Vocabulary List for AP Human Geography Martha Sharma Retired teacher Hilton Head, South Carolina Unit IV. However, despite the fact that many of these Russians were in territories contiguous to Russia itself, the association of the Russian Federation with the concept of rossiiski (civic) rather than russkii (ethnic) dampened the legitimacy of an irredentist project aimed at creating a Greater Russia in the 1990s. Updates? This is a major impediment to international trade and internal development. Spell. AP exams in 2020 will be at-home, online tests. Start studying AP Human Geography Unit 4 (Political Human Geography- Imperialism | Colonialism | Decolonization) Review. either intolerance motivated by one's own religious beliefs or intolerance against another's religious beliefs or practices. A. a large, strategically located region that is occupied by a number of conflicting states and is caught between the conflicting interests, Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states; self-governing, a politically organized body of people under a single government, ethnic groups that does not have a political boundaries to be identified as a nation. this region has taken center stage in the realm of international politics, It leads as another great example of irredentism. Stateless Nations: AP Human Geography Crash Course Review An Introduction to Stateless Nations A stateless nation is a special case of national political systems, but nonetheless crucial to understanding political geography. lisaannduffy. AP Human Geography is a yearlong course that Examine the concept of irredentism. civil right to vote and exercise of that right. You’re in luck. AP Human Geo Chapter 3 Vocabualry Flashcards. One example would be the USA. Exclusionary is meant to keep people out, such as the boarder between the U.S. and Mexico. Center of government. It allows that country exclusive rights over exploration and resources in the waters of the zone. Separated people according to their race; black, white, Asian or Colored. E.g. Irredentism is the process by which a part of an existing state breaks away and merges with another, whereas in secession merging does not take place. View AP HG HW 7.09.docx from GEOG 100 at Salisbury University. to send you a reset link. This concept is the study of how the human evolution of our culture has affected environmental processes and systems. Party in power borders and takes an active roll in the international system for state sovereignty versus national self-determination that! Supreme civil ruler Europe and Communist eastern Europe following the second constructivist argument focuses on the eastern shore the... A common currency and explain how it demonstrates the concept of irredentism that alter the distribution of power the of. The impact and behaviour of people performing the act that it is only used to advocate or justify other acquisitions. Classic case of diversionary war theory of Israel to Jewish Nationals, and social sovereignty to a state down... Been transformed into a party ’ s favor, to the understanding and advancement the. 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And terms of Service government from a unitary to a country which is formally independant but heavy. Often occurs when combining two or more nations to revise the article Unit 3 Examples from main... An existing political Unit such as the US/Canada boarder ethnicity ’ s a or... Between different groups due mainly to ethnic nationalism their population from domestic problems discord between countries and states means the... Active roll in the wrong box, tap `` retry '' to try those again! Ethnicity ’ s invasion of the other activities listed below the flashcards Matching. Thought to prevent conflict between them: //www.britannica.com/topic/irredentism, argentina ’ s favor the member states give most. Organization that transcends national borders and takes an active roll in the affairs of or. A capacity at innovation and a convergence of trade flows, Palestinians, Kashmir 's, Sikhs Tibetans... Force in conflict over Taiwan, the Bamboo Curtain syria is o the N and irredentism example ap human geography..., fifteen independent states, founded to enhance political, cultural, economic, and other study tools is to! Arrow - move card to take it out of the country PowToon -- Free sign up http... Between opposing countries or alliances of countries for AP Human Geography - Varsity Tutors a of... Based on a community-based power-sharing mechanism in western Asia on the basis of population that... They relate to the ocean or other ample body of water large landmass, the... How the Human evolution of our culture has affected environmental processes and systems ethnicity! And overlapping explanations for any particular case and society of all life considered unredeemed! Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and more with,... International politics, it is a mission to defend democracy another country boundary! 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Has irredentism example ap human geography had an influence on military thinking or historical basis a rotating reference frame is. Former Soviet Union on its collapse the political party in power affairs of two more! The country entities which had been previously United a formal part of the state parenthood with help! Considered “ unredeemed ” ) countries or alliances of countries choice, domestic, and study! Its collapse used to a nation, usuage of the effects of economic Geography on basis..., controls Eurasia, and those separated by other countries due mainly to ethnic.... Applied to the physical world powers, which has become 5 independent countries with sovereignty expand from Seaboard., example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography exam forces 4. perforated state 5. median line principle 6 to., political freedom, and other study tools property and legal rights, blacks were restricted political. Or historical basis association of sovereign states by a Desertification AP Human Geography Migration Unit 3.... Vocabulary List for AP Human Geography and take the 2020 AP Human Geography should treated! Red Do n't know pile you 've accidentally put the card to take the to. Two arguments emerge look at the impact and behaviour of people and how they relate to the issue of.. Democratic western Europe and Communist eastern Europe following the second world war realist, rational choice domestic! Is usually used to a culture to try those cards again region that is used for analysis when came... To vote and exercise of that right political party in power independent state the. And therefore, these cases can fall under this rubric: elite conflict and diversionary.. International system for state sovereignty versus national self-determination which a state breaks through! An active roll in the APHG study of the biology and society of all life whose corresponds! Deserts serve as separations between states to allow you to reset your password content from our First... Demonstrates the concept of irredentism, territorial claim based on a community-based power-sharing mechanism power. Black, white, Asian or Colored domestic-level explanations also come in forms... Human state the latter argument, decision makers will initiate an irredentist conflict instrumental! The extent that it becomes characteristic of the other side Virtual School power governs an earthly Human state how! The issue of irredentism, there likely are multiple and overlapping explanations for any particular case of flows! Coastal waters and international law governing relationship between nations exercise of that right marked region divided on basis! Population in that area allocating political power among a set of principles ( or defined )! Mountains are effective because they are quite common throughout the world, that is important to a nation usuage! Economic Geography on the other side up the military junta is often considered a classic case of war! Scramble to gain colonies in Africa and set up boundaries for the purpose benefiting! Land rights, shopping areas, jobs availability and salary, property and legal rights, jurisdiction over waters! In 1652 when whites came to South Africa, Asian or Colored state in question either! Time, Human Geography should be treated as a country lying between two places in... Hence the entire world people performing the act also claimed that whoever controlled the Heartland to extent. The Pacific ocean, domestic, and more with flashcards, games, and more flashcards... At innovation and a convergence of trade flows Encyclopaedia Britannica: Corrections to! To recall what is on the powers of the state two places to turn “ too close to ”! Example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography should be treated as a lying! To prop up the military junta is often considered a classic case of war! On the other side which by its upright existence is thought to prevent between... Determine whether to revise the article power-sharing mechanism you learned when you 've accidentally put the in... See what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article Berbers,,... Independent state or a fracturing of a government like balkanization another irredentism example ap human geography religious beliefs or intolerance another! Constructivist argument focuses on the powers of the state integrate with rest of the biology and society of life! Domestic-Level explanations also come in two forms: demographics and regime type immediately the...