The lower figure is based on the number of unmated males reported from intensive surveys at core sites that traditionally support multiple birds (e.g., 3 of 29 males in 2002–03), and is an underestimate because it does not include unmated birds in marginal habitats at other sites. 71 pp. . Robert Craig and Don Sutherland provided Acadian Flycatcher information from the Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre database. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 1994. Cadman. Whitehead, D.R. Woolfenden, B. and B. Stutchbury. Reason for designationIn Canada, this species is restricted to certain types of mature forest in southern Ontario. Acadian flycatcher. (2009) predicted a significant decline in Acadian Flycatcher populations and range contractions in the northeastern U.S., particularly in the Appalachian Highlands, owing to large–scale mortality of hemlock from wooly adelgid infestations. This is much larger than average territory sizes reported in the core U.S. range (e.g., 1 ha in Ohio and Pennsylvania; Whitehead and Taylor 2002; Woolfenden et al. McCracken, J., D. Martin, I.Bisson, M. Gartshore, and R. Knapton. The latest Tweets from Acadian Flycatcher (@AcadianFcatcher). BBS trends for New York and Michigan are not reliable due to small sample sizes (Sauer et al. The global population is estimated at 4,700,000 individuals (Rich et al. Almost all atlas squares (10 x 10 km) in the Carolinian and Lake Simcoe–Rideau atlas regions in southern Ontario received some coverage in both atlases and most received more than 20 hours of coverage. At least in some settings, this species is negatively impacted by openings in the forest canopy (e.g., due to selective logging or tree mortality caused by invasive pests), anthropogenic edges, increasing forest fragmentation, and urbanization (Whitehead and Taylor 2002; Bakerman and Rodewald 2006; Hetzel and Leberg 2006; Hoover et al. 2009. Ontario Nest Record Scheme (electronic database). Habitat loss and degradation are the biggest threats to Acadian Flycatchers. What is NCC doing to conserve habitat for this species? Hoover, J.P., T.H. Breeding bird atlas detailed distribution of the Acadian Flycatcher in Ontario\ from 2001–05, Table 1. 346–347 in McGowan, K.R. Acadian Flycatcher: Small flycatcher with olive-gray upperparts, pale gray throat, distinctive pale yellow eye-ring, white lower breast, and faint yellow wash on belly and undertail coverts. Numerous other species at risk and rare wildlife species are also associated with Carolinian woodlands and the Carolinian region has among the highest levels of biodiversity in Canada (Carolinian Canada 2008; Jalava et al. Journal of Field Ornithology 76:150–157. Home. 1999). 1909. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0. Since 1995 there have been a few Canadian band encounters, including a colour–marked individual captured during spring migration at Long Point that was originally banded the previous summer as a breeding adult at a traditional site about 10 km northwest of the banding station (Long Point Bird Observatory unpubl. 2008). For the Acadian Flycatcher, edge–effects on productivity can extend as much as 600 m into the forest, as reported by one study in Illinois (Hoover et al. Figure 1. Are there extreme fluctuations in index of area of occupancy? Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), a State Threatened bird, prefers lowland deciduous forests and heavily wooded hillsides in large blocks of southern forests. Volume II. December 2009. data). Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? Update COSEWIC status report on the Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens in Canada, in COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens in Canada. 1999). Robbins, C.S., D.K. It is protected by the Canada National Parks Act where it occurs in Point Pelee National Park. This is the only member of the confusing Empidonax group to nest in most parts of the deep south. Several of the other known sites are managed as protected areas by municipalities, conservation authorities, non–profit conservation organizations, or private landowners. Ontario Birds at Risk: Status and Conservation Needs. COSEWIC assessed this species as Endangered in November 2000. 2007). Serious conservation concerns, both in Canada and the adjacent U.S.also stem from increasingly widespread losses of a variety of favoured nest tree species owing to the spread of an array of exotic forest insects and pathogens. Aerial foraging sallies are directed at food items gleaned on leaves in the understorey and lower canopy vegetation layers, from 2 to 12 m in height. Bird Studies Canada, Environment Canada, Ontario Field Ornithologists, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, and Ontario Nature, Toronto. The Acadian Flycatcher’s historic distribution in Ontario is not well known, because this species is fairly inconspicuous, difficult to identify, and nests in forested tracts that are seldom visited during the breeding season (Woodliffe 1987). Thin white eyering.
(compiler). 2006 Acadian Flycatcher field work data summary. Kennedy, A. Martell, A. Panjabi, D.N. Acadian Flycatcher - Dungeness, Kent September 22nd 2015. Over the past 20 years there have been a series of coordinated efforts to survey and monitor populations of rare breeding birds in Ontario, including the Acadian Flycatcher. Data from Ontario show strong year–to–year variation in the proportion of successful nests, ranging from 33% to 73% (Table 1). Iverson, A. Prassad, T.S. Becker, D.A., M.C. Natural Heritage Information Center (NHIC). The Birds of Canada. In contrast, owing to high population densities, individual territories in Pennsylvania tend to be occupied perennially despite turnover in breeding individuals (Woolfenden et al. The Acadian Flycatcher is a late–spring migrant, with males arriving on territory in southern Ontario starting in mid–May. 3 pp. Climate threats facing the Acadian Flycatcher. Pairs typically return to the same breeding and wintering territories, while young birds often disperse to other sites. This species is also presently listed as Endangered, Schedule 1 under the federal Species at Risk Act and the Ontario Endangered Species Act 2007. Unpublished report to Canadian Wildlife Service. Collectively, these threats to habitat greatly reduce potential for rescue from adjacent U.S. populations. Several core breeding locations have been monitored more frequently, with more intensive studies involving nest monitoring, colour banding, and territory mapping projects carried out in some years (Martin 2001, 2005; Woolfenden and Stutchbury 2004a,b; P. Burke 2006, 2007). Dusky flycatcher. Required avoidance period is May 25 - August 20 . Consequently, Acadian Flycatcher breeding habitat is also vitally important to many other Canadian species at risk. She has more than 10 years’ work experience focusing on birds at risk, breeding bird surveys, bird banding, migration monitoring, and landbird conservation in Ontario. Sex discrimination of the Acadian Flycatcher using discriminant analysis. Long broad-based bill with yellow-orange lower mandible. Bird nesting ecology in a forest defoliated by gypsy moths. Couturier (eds). 0:00 / Acadian flycatcher (call / song) call, song. National Recovery Plan No. comm. The Acadian Flycatcher is identified as one of 195 species of Continental Importance in the North American Landbird Conservation Plan because 98% of its global population breeds within the Eastern Avifaunal Biome, and agencies in that avifaunal region have a high stewardship responsibility for the conservation of this species (Rich et al. This is a list of birds species recorded in the archipelago of Cuba which consists of the main island of Cuba and over 1000 smaller cays and islands.The avifauna of Cuba included a total of 398 species as of August 2017. Migratory Bird Convention Act, 1994. 2004a. In Canada, it breeds mostly in the Carolinian Forest Zone in southwestern Ontario. website: [accessed February 2009]. 2009). Website: [accessed October 2008]. For the most recent 10–year period (1997–2007) the comparable BBS trends are +0.92%/yr (p=0.54, n=35) and +0.55% (p=0.65, n=55), indicating that earlier declines in these jurisdictions show signs of levelling off (Sauer et al. The Acadian Flycatcher is listed as Endangered federally and appears on Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act. 164 pp. 2000; Bakerman and Rodewald 2006; Chapas–Vargas and Robinson 2007). Ohio Breeding Bird Atlas II. Several of the Acadian Flycatcher’s preferred nest tree species (hemlock, beech, flowering dogwood) are being decimated by invasive forest pests and pathogens (Hemlock Wooly Adelgid, beech bark disease, and dogwood anthracnose) in the northeastern United States. Kelly Colgan Azar. Acadian Flycatcher nests are parasitized by the Brown–headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). The Acadian has longer primary projection than those two similar species, but that is hard to gauge without more photos. 1997. Acadian Flycatcher habitat selection in south–western Ontario. 2007. 1999. Due to its current Endangered status, the Acadian Flycatcher is identified as a Priority Species in the landbird conservation plan for southern Ontario (OPIF 2008). The Acadian Flycatcher may also be relatively tolerant of predicted climate changes, because it is generally adapted to a warmer climate. Projected or suspected percent change in total number of, Observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected percent change in total number of mature individuals over any 10 years, or 3 generations period, over a time period including both the. 1991. There is currently no evidence of spatial population structuring within the Canadian or North American population of this species. Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) Status in Canada: Endangered. Females appear to have lower return rates than males (Walkinshaw 1966; Rodewald and Shustack 2008). Becker, and P.S. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR). Tischendorf, L. 2003. Ontario Partners in Flight Ontario (OPIF). A pilot banding station at Pinery Provincial Park on the southeast shore of Lake Huron captured five birds in spring 2007 (Ausable Bird Observatory unpubl.
Coordinated surveys of known and potential Acadian Flycatcher breeding habitat in southern Ontario were carried out in 1997, 1998, 2002, and 2007 (Heagy et al. COSEWIC Range: Ontario
This report may be cited as follows: COSEWIC. In ravine settings, nests are located near (often over) a stream. Fledglings are fed by both parents for at least 14 days and remain in the vicinity of the nest for up to 21 days. Acadian Flycatcher, pp. Morton. In ravine and riparian settings in Ontario and the northeastern U.S., this species shows a strong preference for sites with an Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) component (Martin 2007; Becker et al. Nesting success of Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) in floodplain forest corridors. It has greenish-brown upperparts, a grayish-white throat, a white lower breast, a light yellow belly, white wing bars, and a white eye ring. 140/2005. The wintering range of this Neotropical migrant extends from the Caribbean slope of Nicaragua, south through Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Parasitism rates in the US range are highly variable across landscapes, ranging from 0% in areas of continuous forest, to 3%–7% in areas with high forest cover, to 20%–50% in areas with less than 30% forest cover (Whitehead and Taylor 2002; Fauth and Cabe 2005; Hazler et al. 1999. Ottawa, ON. Multiple territories (up to 3) were found at eight sites. 159 pp. How Much Habitat is Enough? Recovery Team |
Woolfenden, B. and B. Stutchbury. Cadman, M.D., D.A. The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) meets at least once a year to assess the status of wildlife species. Some of the atlas records with possible breeding evidence likely represent late migrants or prospecting birds. Acadian Flycatcher, Empidonax virescens, nest site characteristics at the northern edge of its range.. The Acadian Flycatcher is a bird that is not globally threatened for extinction (Redlist). COSEWIC status reports are working documents used in assigning the status of wildlife species suspected of being at risk. Parks Canada Agency, Fall 2005, Final V1.0. Like other tyrant flycatchers, the males and females look alike. Adults have olive upperparts, darker on the wings and tail, with whitish underparts; they have a white eye ring, white wing bars and a wide bill. 2008), the overall Acadian Flycatcher population in North America appears to be reasonably well monitored by the BBS (detected on 973 routes situated throughout the US breeding range). Eagles, and F.M. Black legs, feet. 1989. Panjabi, B. Altman, J. Bart, C.J. Photograph (top) of an Acadian Flycatcher at Fontenelle Forest, Sarpy Co 28 May 2017 by Phil Swanson. Adults have olive upperparts, darker on the wings and tail, with whitish underparts; they have a white eye ring, white wing bars and a wide bill. 33 pp. References Molecular Ecology 11:2065–2081. Of the dozen or more maddeningly similar species in the Empidonax genus, the cheery Acadian Flycatcher is the common one of mature forests of the Southeast and Mid-Atlantic U.S. COSEWIC History of Status Designation: Designated Endangered in April 1994. Website: [accessed March 2009]. It is considered common and not of conservation concern in most jurisdictions within its breeding range in the United States but is ranked as Vulnerable (S3) in all states bordering Ontario other than Pennsylvania (S5) and Ohio (S5; NatureServe 2008). iii COSEWIC Assessment Summary Assessment Summary – April 2010 Common name Acadian Flycatcher Scientific name Empidonax virescens Status Endangered Reason for designation In Canada, this species is … Website: [accessed 14 October 2008]. Other tyrant flycatchers. The Acadian Flycatcher’s life cycle is fairly typical of other small passerines; most information below is summarized from Whitehead and Taylor (2002). It has greenish-brown upperparts, a grayish-white throat, a white lower breast, a light yellow belly, white wing bars, and a white eye ring. Eagles, and F.M. However, it will take many decades before such habitat reaches sufficient maturity to support Acadian Flycatchers. [accessed 27 October 2008]. Such ideal habitat conditions are rare within the agriculture–dominated landscape of southern Ontario. The Hooded Warbler is listed as Threatened … Within a physiographic region, this species exhibits a high degree of habitat specificity at various scales (Bakerman and Rodewald 2006). Routes are not randomly situated. Selva Verde provides opportunities to see species such as the Keel-billed Toucan, White-winged Becard, Sunbittern, Acadian Flycatcher and the endangered Great Green Macaw; as well as mammals including Howler and White faced monkeys, Agoutis and Coatis; amphibians and reptiles such as the big Green Iguanas, Emerald Basiliscus and the popular Red- eyed Tree Frogs, Green and Black Frogs … IRF 18610–Contract No. The figures reported in Table 2 include unmated, monogamously paired and polygynous males, and males whose breeding status was not determined. Endangered and threatened species; Extinct species; Unaccepted species; News & updates; ACADIAN FLYCATCHER. Distribution and Population |
Natural Heritage/Natural History Inc., Toronto, ON. The species is threatened by forestry practices, particularly those that target removal of large trees. Residential and agricultural development in or near woodlots can also have negative consequences for sensitive wildlife like the Acadian flycatcher. Rodenhouse, N.L., S.N. Beck, D. Lepage, and A.R. In 1978, COSEWIC designated its first species and produced its first list of Canadian species at risk. Vagrants have occurred in Quebec and British Columbia (Godfrey 1986; Gauthier and Aubry 1996). The Acadian Flycatcher was flagged as a rare species and atlassers were asked to provide detailed documentation. 2006). The breeding range of this species corresponds closely to the Eastern Avifaunal Biome, being widely distributed in forested landscapes east of the Great Plains (Rich et al. COSEWIC Assessment Date and Status Change: April 2010
However, unless a regulation is made earlier, habitat protection for this species will not be in place until June 2013. : A Framework for Guiding Habitat Rehabilitation in Great Lakes Areas of Concern, Second Edition. The Acadian Flycatcher has rarely been detected on BBS routes in Canada. Mean clutch size for Acadian Flycatcher nests in Ontario is 2.9 ± 0.4 (range 1–4, n=104), which is similar to elsewhere (ONRS 2008). FBMP 2008. Reproductive success of Acadian Flycatcher in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia. 5. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, ON. 2008. Habitat protection for endangered, threatened and extirpated species under the Endangered Species Act, 2007. Males attract females with their unique song and erratic courtship displays, and establish nesting territories. Report for Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre. At a finer scale, numbers of birds at the site and county level have fluctuated over the past few decades, with local declines and extirpations in some areas (e.g., Chatham–Kent sites, see Table 2) being offset by more birds and additional occupied sites in other areas (e.g., Norfolk County). Nest productivity statistics for Acadian Flycatcher nests in southern Ontario, 2001–04, Table 2. 1987; Cadman et al. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2010.Catalogue CW69–14/5–2010E–PDFISBN 978–1–100–15955–3. In size, it is slightly larger than a house sparrow, and in appearance it is similar to other flycatchers of the genus Empidonax. Although the population appears to have been relatively stable over the past 10-20 years, this is most likely due to immigration from U.S. populations. Currently, very little of the forest remains and the remnants are highly fragmented. Yellow-bellied Flycatcher Empidonax flaviventris Doug Gross/PGC Photo . 595 pp. 2003; and Heagy and Badzinski 2008). Brown, P.A. Edge–avoidance seems to be less of a factor in forested ravine situations because it will nest in long linear territories that occur in quite narrow (minimum of 80–85 m) belts of riparian forest corridors (Friesen et al. 2008. Individuals banded as breeding adults in southern Ontario and elsewhere show a high degree of site fidelity by both males and females, with returning birds often re–occupying the same territory (Whitehead and Taylor 2002; Recovery Team unpubl. 2010. NatureServe. The Acadian Flycatcher has been known to migrate to Ontario for well over a century with the first nesting records dating back from 1884. SARA prohibits harming or possessing a listed species, or damaging its residence or critical habitat. Designations are made on native species for the following taxonomic groups: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, arthropods, molluscs, vascular plants, mosses, and lichens. Taxonomy Group: Birds
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station. Johnsgard, J. Kren, and W.C. Scharf. Total field effort in these regions increased moderately during OBBA2. Given that search effort on private lands is limited and that a few new sites are being found every year, it is clear that a number of birds are being missed during these periodic surveys. Woolfenden, B. and B. Stutchbury. The same climate change-driven threats that put birds at risk will affect other wildlife and people, too. Statutes of Ontario 2007, Chapter 6. Conservation Biology 13:58–66. plus appendices. Empidonax virescens General Element Report inNHICElements Database. In Ontario, eggs are laid between June 8 and July 30. Measures of intra–specific genetic variation (n=10) are typical of other bird and vertebrate species (Zink and Johnson 1984). Prior to the 1970s, this species was considered a rare but fairly regular local breeder along the north shore of Lake Erie (Speirs 1985; Godfrey 1986; Woodliffe 1987; Austen et al. Forest configuration is also a concern because Acadian Flycatchers are sensitive to forest fragmentation effects. Allnut, T. Brooks, D.K. Outside of the breeding season, this species uses a broad range of habitats, but deforestation on the wintering grounds is a potential concern (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). Again, however, the extent to which this figure can reasonably be extrapolated to the southern Ontario situation is debatable, given the species’ affinity for linear, relatively narrow belts of ravine habitat here. Description |
Breeding bird atlas detailed distribution of the Acadian Flycatcher in Ontario from 2001–05 (from Cadman et al. The upper part of the bill is dark; the lower part is yellowish. Blancher, P.J., K.V. Iverson, and A.M. Prasad. Eight sites had records of a single male found on only one occasion. It arose from the need for a single, official, scientifically sound, national listing of wildlife species at risk. 2000. ACFLs in Elgin, Middlesex and Chatham–Kent: 2001 summary. 2004. Long Point Bird Observatory, Port Rowan, ON. Forest Resources of Ontario 2006: State of the Forest Report 2006. comm. It is around 5 inches in length. or sign up with your email address Similar Mind Maps Mind Map Outline. Across the breeding range, there are geographic differences in the specific habitats selected and in its response to landscape characteristics. However, given the consistency of past survey results, it seems probable that about half of all occupied sites were included in the 2007 surveys. The Canadian breeding range of the Acadian Flycatcher is largely restricted to the Carolinian Region of southern Ontario. Effects of selective logging on forest bird populations in a fragmented landscape. Carolinian Canada. Pashley, K.V. Stansberry, C.D. Acadian Flycatcher territories in Ontario are typically in either mature tableland forests or forested ravines (Bisson et al. It is also protected by the federal Migratory Birds Convention Act. Repeat surveys of known Acadian Flycatcher sites indicate that over the past decade, habitat degradation is more pervasive and a more significant threat than outright loss of forest habitat, especially in tableland settings. comm. 1998. Some records occur in adjacent parts of the Lake Simcoe–Rideau ecoregion (Figure 3). 2008). K1869–2–0070.
Brown, C.R., M.B. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. Profile by Aidan Healey: The Acadian Flycatcher is a bird that experienced birders will often consider a challenge to identify. Only small numbers breed in Canada. 11 pp. Breeding distribution of the Acadian Flycatcher in Ontario, showing overall extent of occurrence, Figure 3. Status re-examined and confirmed in November 2000 and April 2010. The species is thought to have been more widespread and numerous in Canada prior to the clearing of forests in the early 1800s. Like other flycatchers, the species mainly forages in flight, catching flying insects such as bees, wasps, ants, beetles, and moths. Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? Plumages of both sexes are similar but males are significantly larger than females and the combination of wing chord and tail length measurements can be used to discriminate between the sexes (Wilson 1999). It is very similar in appearance to other Empidonax flycatchers, and during the breeding season is best distinguished by its distinctive peet–sa song, other characteristic vocalizations, and habitat. Saunders, W.E. 1996. Debbie Badzinski (Bird Studies Canada) provided access to the Acadian Flycatcher/Hooded Warbler Recovery Team database. The Ontario Planning Act and the Provincial Policy Statement (PPS) discourages development in the “significant habitat” of endangered and threatened species, including the Acadian Flycatcher (OMMAH2005). The observed pattern of intermittent site occupancy (site turnover) is consistent with the Canadian Acadian Flycatcher population functioning as a metapopulation, with populations at the site level being semi–isolated and vulnerable to local extinction but linked by dispersion from other sites (Environment Canada 2004). Quick Facts: It is a rare breeding bird in Canada but has nested at both the Nursery Tract and the Turkey Point … Any further fragmentation or conversion of forest habitat in the Carolinian region is of particular concern, given the current conditions (low regional forest cover and high fragmentation). Photo |
Studies of Acadian Flycatcher occurrence and breeding success in the United States have shown that it is sensitive to site–, patch– and landscape–scale effects. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat. Conference Casebook. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR). Federation of Ontario Naturalists, Don Mills, ON and Long Point Bird Observatory, Port Rowan, ON. Journal of Wildlife Management 70:1416–1424. 2003. 2008. This species does exhibit some degree of flexibility in that it can nest successfully in relatively narrow wooded ravine situations, and uses several different tree and shrub species for nest–support. 262 pp. Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) in NatureServe Explorer: an online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Sillett, R.T. Holmes. Edge and area effects on the occurrence of migrant forest songbirds. Matthews, S., R. O’Connor, L.R. Beardmore, G.S. 2007). NR 27, Wis. Admin. 20. Jalava, J.V., J. D. Ambrose and N.S. 1 bird per year; Huebert 2007; V. MacKay pers. Endangered. Breeding distribution of the Acadian Flycatcher in Ontario, showing overall extent of occurrence (adapted from Cadman et al. Although there is no quantitative estimate of the relative amount of suitable habitat available in ravine versus tableland settings in southern Ontario, it appears that ravine settings are favoured by Acadian Flycatchers here, perhaps because these sites are less likely to be exposed to intensive logging practices and hence have relatively undisturbed older–growth features. Point Pelee is a home to many rare, threatened and endangered species, some of the rare animals are the eastern mole, mink, white-tailed deer and coyotes. Denis Lepage (Bird Studies Canada) provided access to nest record data for Ontario from the Ontario Nest Records Scheme/Project Nestwatch data. Couturier (eds). The nests are suspended hammock-wise from the fork or crotch of a shade tree 2.5-4.5 meters above the ground. Diameter-limit tree harvest is a common silviculture practice where the oldest and largest trees are harvested, drastically reducing the canopy cover. Partners in Flight estimates a global population of 5.2 million, and rates the species an 11 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score, indicating a … Long–term changes in the extent and distribution of woodlands in southern Ontario have been described by Larson et al. Northeastern Naturalist 15:227–240. Status at SWCR: Rare breeding bird. 2006; Chapas–Vargas and Robinson 2006; Chapas–Vargas and Robinson 2007). Both sexes breed at one year of age. 1994). This could also be an Alder or Willow Flycatcher. records 1960–2008). Regional forest cover is below the 30% minimum guideline for sustaining forest bird biodiversity (Environment Canada 2004) in all parts of the Carolinian region, and is less than 5% in some parts of the region. Status historyDesignated Endangered in April 1994. Association québecoise des groupes d’ornithologues, Province of Quebec Society for the Protection of Birds, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Quebec Region, Montreal, QC. Update COSEWIC Status Report on the Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens in Canada. Dave Martin, Environmental Consultant; Belmont, Ontario. Total survey effort in each of these coordinated surveys was similar, although there were differences in the sites covered. Data on population change prior to the 1980s are scarce. Auk 124:1267–1280. Widespread habitat loss threatens the species and has raised conservation concerns. This figure is about double the EO of 18,500 km² calculated using occurrence data from the 1981–85 atlas, but again the extent to which this reflects an actual range expansion is unknown. Serious conservation concerns, both in Canada and the adjacent U.S.also stem from increasingly widespread losses of a variety of favoured nest tree species owing to the spread of an array of invasive forest insects and pathogens. Rustay, J.M. This rate is similar to the annual reproductive productivity of about 1.6 fledged young per pair (n=193, range 0 to 7 young per pair per season) over a 6–year study in Ohio but about half the seasonal fecundity rate of 1.8 female fledglings per adult female (n=30) per season reported in a study in an extensively forested area in Virginia (Fauth and Cabe 2005; Rodewald and Shustack 2008). data). Status report on the Acadian Flycatcher, Empidonax virescens, in Canada. 2006; Rodewald and Shustack 2008). The species is mostly monogamous, but up to 20% of males in Ontario have two or more females nesting in their territory. The breeding biology of the Acadian Flycatcher has been studied intensively in the United States. The Committee meets to consider status reports on candidate species. The Acadian Flycatcher was designated as "Endangered" Species in 2000 by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). Throughout the Carolinian Forest region of Ontario, most of the remaining forest patches are very small (less than three hectares) and only an extremely small percentage of them is large enough to meet the species’ requirements. 2008. There are few direct observations of nest predation events but likely nest predators in southern Ontario include other bird species (Blue Jay, Cyanocitta cristata, and forest raptors), small mammals (squirrels, chipmunks, and mice), and arboreal snakes (Gray Ratsnake, Pantherophis spiloides, and Eastern Foxsnake, P. gloydi; Whitehead and Taylor 2002). Helleiner (eds): Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario. songs, or to fly out to catch insects. November 2008. Long Point Bird Observatory, Port Rowan, ON. The Canadian population is at the northern limit of the species’ breeding range, the edge of which is presumably limited by climatic tolerances because apparently suitable forest habitat is extensive farther north outside the current breeding range (Deschamps and McCracken 1998). Auk 27:209. Birds of the Cedar Point Biological Station area, Keith and Garden Counties, Nebraska: Seasonal occurrence and breeding data. 2007. 2007). Name Recovery Strategy for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) and the Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina) in Canada
plus appendices. 86 pp. OWA (Ontario Woodlot Association) 2009. Although previously considered a solitary species, high rates of extra–pair fertilizations were documented in Pennsylvania, with most extra–pair fertilizations involving males that had forayed a kilometre or more from their territory rather than the males in neighbouring territories (Woolfenden et al. Audrey Heagy is a Bird Conservation Planning Biologist with Bird Studies Canada, a non–profit, non–governmental bird research organization with headquarters in Port Rowan, Ontario. Baltz. One known breeding site is on First Nations lands at Kettle Point (Recovery Team unpubl. Although annual site occupancy is somewhat intermittent in Ontario owing to natural turnover of individuals, the species displays strong long–term attachment to particular sites, and routinely recolonizes them so long as they retain favourable breeding habitat. Due to high fragmentation, less than 2% of the Carolinian region consists of interior forest (>100 m from edge), and less than 0.5% is deep interior forest (>200 mfrom edge; Cadman 1999). Royal Ontario Museum and Bird Studies Canada. The Acadian Flycatcher has been characterized as an area–sensitive species (e.g., Robbins et al. The bird lives in the understory of woods with a closed canopy. However, the response to these factors is not always consistent across the breeding range, possibly because these site and edge effects can be masked by the impact of more pervasive landscape–level effects (Robinson and Robinson 1999; Bell and Whitmore 2000; Hazler et al. Studies of the Acadian Flycatcher in Michigan.
IAO is <500 km², but there is no evidence for decline, fragmentation or extreme fluctuation in populations, habitat or range. Small flycatcher with a big, peaked head and relatively long bill. No estimates available for the other 19 squares. Quick Facts: Prior to the 1800’s, the Carolinian area of Ontario would have had abundant suitable habitat for this species. The species is also considered to be a forest interior species, meaning that it avoids forest edges and build their nests in areas that are more than 100 meters from the forest edge. The Acadian Flycatcher is often used as a focal species for forest bird research in eastern North America because it is considered relatively easy to study, and is an indicator of forest habitat conditions at a range of scales. The 95 nesting attempts tracked in Ontario for the 2001–2004 period fledged an average of 1.7 young per female per year (Table 1). This report benefited from comments received from Peter Blancher, Ruben Boles, Dick Cannings, Britt Corriveau, Alan Dextrase, Lyle Friesen, Vicki Friesen, Christian Friis, Richard Knapton, Darren Irwin, Marty Leonard, Angela McConnell, Jon McCracken, Patrick Nantel, and Don Sutherland. 2007; PIF 2008; Sauer et al. The species is threatened by forestry practices, particularly those that target removal of large trees. See text. 1987. Remaining forest habitat mostly consists of small, isolated, and highly fragmented patches, with only a few hundred patches over 100 ha and little interior area more than 200 m from a forest edge. 2004. Summary Report, Contract # KW404–07–0824. 2008). Strategic habitat restoration efforts are underway to enhance forest–interior habitat in several of the core forest complexes in the Carolinian region, and to re–forest riparian corridors generally in southern Ontario. 2008. Less than half of the known breeding sites are occupied in any given year, and most sites are occupied only sporadically. In Ontario, many June records of single singing males present in suitable (or marginal) habitat for one or a few days appear to be late migrants or wandering individuals that have overshot or not yet reached their breeding grounds. However, habitat shift for species associated with mature forests, such as the Acadian Flycatcher, is predicted to occur relatively slowly (at least one century), due to the lag time associated with tree migration and longevity (Matthews et al. Wings are olive-gray with two buff wing bars. Regular surveys since 1997 indicate that the population in southern Ontario has been relatively stable, although there has been considerable variation in which sites are occupied or have multiple pairs. Despite improved protection available for woodlands in southern Ontario under the Planning Act and county tree–cutting bylaws, conversion and encroachment on forests for agriculture, rural residential developments, utility corridors, and urban sprawl is still occurring. There are approximately 4,700,000 individuals in their overall population (HBW). Systematic Zoology 33:205–216. Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) Range: NA info. PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. The breast is washed with olive. James, R.D. In Canada, the Acadian flycatcher occurs in very low numbers in the Carolinian area of southern Ontario. Rosenburg, C. Rustay, S. Wendt, and T. Will. Status report on the Acadian flycatcher, Empidonax virescens, in Canada. COSEWIC. Responses of Acadian Flycatchers (Empidonax virescens) to hemlock wooly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) infestation in Appalachian riparian forests. Please note that this information is provided for general information purposes only. Cadman, P.F.J. Page, A.M., and M.D. Ottawa. Empidonax virescens. The main limiting factor is continuing forest loss in southern Ontario. comm. Rich, T.D., C.J. 2008. The upper part of the bill is dark; the lower part is yellowish. 2008. Population counts and estimates for the Acadian Flycatcher in Canada (1987-2007), Atlas of climate change effects in 150 bird species of the Eastern United States (PDF, 651 KB), NatureServe Explorer: an online encyclopedia of life, A List of Municipalities with Bylaws, Ontario Woodlot Assocation, Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 3.0, The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966–2007, Species at Risk Act, Statutes of Canada 2002, Chapter 29, Actual numbers estimated to be 10% to 50% higher than count, 50 atlas squares with breeding evidence over 2001–05 period, Between 27 and 35 pairs in any given year, 26–29 territorial males at 14 sites in 1998, 35–50 territorial males (including many unpaired birds), 20–100 pairs (probably fewer than 50 pairs), 41 to 75 pairs, probably closer to the lower figure, 29 atlas squares with breeding evidence over 1981–85 period, Abundance estimates of 1 bird in 6 squares, and 2–10 birds in 4 squares. Draft manuscript. [accessed 27 October 2008]. Territorial birds are reported fairly regularly during early summer at Point Pelee National Park, but breeding has not been confirmed (Wormington 2006). The reliability of this estimate, which is based on BBS data, is considered good (PIF 2008). The Acadian Flycatcher is a medium– to long–distance neotropical migrant. Federation of Ontario Naturalists, Don Mills, ON. Rates increase with increasing urbanization (Rodewald and Shustack 2008; Rodewald 2009). Only small numbers breed in Canada. The Acadian Flycatcher is a habitat specialist with specific breeding habitat requirements at various spatial scales (Bakerman and Rodewald 2006). 2004; Sauer et al. and P.R. The throat is grayish white, the upper breast pale olive, the lower breast white, and the belly yellowish. Most public forest lands within the Carolinian region have been surveyed at least once for Acadian Flycatcher by the recovery team over the past 12 years. Results from the Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario and the Acadian Flycatcher/Hooded Warbler Recovery Team indicate that the distribution has changed little since the 1990s. Endangered Species Act, 2007. In the winter, the Acadian Flycatcher lives in lowland tropical forests and second growth. 24–28 in Kettle, A. Acadian Flycatcher. That said, in Ontario, this species appears to do well in long, linear, forested ravine situations that may be no more than 100–200 m in width. The home range of breeding males is therefore considerably larger than the territory size. The explosive peet-sah, and its high-pitched twitter as it flies from perch to perch, are both distinctive. 2002. BBS long–term trends for Ohio and Pennsylvania over the 1966–2007 period show declines of 2.3%/yr (p=0.04, n=53), and 0.4%/yr (p=0.28, n=78), respectively (Sauer et al. 123:368–382. 19 pp. 1998 Surveys of Acadian Flycatchers and Hooded Warblers in Ontario. 4 pp. plus appendices. [accessed 25 October 2008]. Empidonax virescens (Acadian Flycatcher) is a species of birds in the family tyrant flycatchers. Estimated percent of continuing decline in total number of. Website: [accessed February 2009]. Species at Risk Act (SARA), 2002. This legislation prohibits the possession or sale of migratory birds and their nests, and activities that are harmful to migratory birds, their eggs, or their nests, except as permitted under the Migratory Bird Regulations. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Report for Recovery Team Meeting. Version 7.0. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens in Canada. 1987. Burke, P. 2007b. Because Acadian Flycatchers most commonly nest in large blocks of mature, closed-canopy forest habitats, they are sensitive to forest fragmentation effects. Figure 3. Lawrence Plain (North American Bird Conservation Region 13), Priorities, Objectives and Recommended Actions. The atlas map suggests a northward range expansion beyond the Carolinian region over the 20–year interval between atlases (Martin 2007), but the degree to which this is true is complicated by a concurrent increase in search effort and a general improvement in observer skills. The species is threatened by forestry practices, particularly those that target removal of large trees. These influxes may double the population in some years (Friesen et al. The greatest winter concentration may occur from Panama and farther south (Fitzpatrick 1978 in Whitehead and Taylor 2002). Information on trends in wintering and migration habitat is not available. Since 1997, many additional Acadian Flycatcher breeding locations have been identified, mostly as a result of directed searches coordinated by the Acadian Flycatcher/Hooded Warbler Recovery Team (see Sampling Effort for further details). Weir, R.D. Forest cover within the breeding range of this species in Ontario has not exhibited similar recovery trends to those in Northern New England over recent decades. Acadian Flycatcher Species Guidance5 of 7PUB ER-685 (last updated October 8, 2018) According to Wisconsin’s Endangered Species Law (s. 29.604, Wis. University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, ON. Dowell. Sites known to be occupied (1985–2004) are about evenly divided between these two settings (Recovery Team unpubl. The Acadian Flycatcher breeds in mature forests, especially deciduous woods, along streams, in ravines, and in swamps. Due to her extensive field experience, she is familiar with most of the known Acadian Flycatcher breeding sites in Ontario. Conservation Biology 19:1157–1167. comm. Species at Risk Act: COSEWIC assessments and status reports, Figure 1. Information on predation of fledged young and adults is not available. Catalogue CW69-14/5-2010E-PDF ISBN 978-1-100-15955-3 Recycled paper. Each point is surveyed once (3–minute point count) during the breeding season. 2005. Threats |
Helleiner (eds). Acadian Flycatcher Species Guidance 1 of 7 PUB ER-685 (last updated October 8, 2018) Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) Species Guidance Family: Tyrannidae – the tyrant flycatchers Global Rank evidence General Description: The Acadian Flycatcher is approximately 15 cm (5.75 in) long. Assuming that half of the eight males detected only once were migrants or transients and that no birds were missed at any of the survey sites, then the minimum number of territorial breeding males was 32. Status at SWCR: Rare breeding bird. No Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge is currently available for this species. Small flycatcher with a big, peaked head and relatively long bill. Nest success rates in the species are highly variable from region to region and year to year. Alan Dextrase, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, Ontario. Scale–dependent habitat use of Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) in central Ohio. The Woodland Heritage of Southern Ontario: A study of ecological change, distribution, and significance. 2008. They perch on slender branches at middle heights to sing explosive ker-chip! Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR). McCracken et al. This includes deciduous forests in the eastern United States west to Texas. Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: or Search WorldCat. Clutch size is generally 3 eggs and ranges from 1 to 4. Most Canadian breeding records fall within the Carolinian biogeographic region, which is generally equivalent to the provincial Lake Erie–Lake Ontario and the federal Lake Erie Lowland ecoregions. Ottawa. In Canada, the breeding range of the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) and the Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina) is limited to southern Ontario. Over the entire historical record, the most frequent nest–support species in Ontario (n=186) are American Beech (Fagus grandifolia; 35%), Witch–hazel (Hamamelis virginiana; 16%), Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum; 13%), Eastern Hemlock (11%), and Eastern Flowering Dogwood (Cornus florida; 9%; ONRS 2008). ACADIAN FLYCATCHER. Results from the Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario and the Acadian Flycatcher/Hooded Warbler Recovery Team indicate that the distribution has changed little since the 1990s. Conservation The populations nationwide appear to be stable, but may be declining in the Midwest. Print. In the hand, this species can be distinguished from other Empidonax sspecies by a combination of features including size (wing chord 65–80 mm), bill shape and colour, grey legs, and an especially long primary projection (Pyle 1997). The role of ecologic diversification in sibling speciation of Empidonaxflycatchers (Tyrannidae): multigene evidence from mtDNA. McCracken. ELUTIS – Modelling and Consulting Inc., Ottawa, ON. The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World, Sixth Edition. Heagy, A., D. Martin, and J. McCracken. Essex and Chatham–Kent counties in the extreme southern Carolinian region have less than 5% forest cover (Larson et al. en Two additional Carolinian bird species were newly listed in 1994, the endangered Acadian Flycatcher and the threatened Hooded Warbler. 1989. The Acadian Flycatcher is common in the eastern United States. (1998) suggested that the Ontario breeding population exhibits considerable year–to–year population fluctuations. The PPSalso provides some protection to forests, including enabling municipal tree–cutting bylaws, and providing protection for designated significant woodlands and valley lands. 1994. Dispersal rates are not sufficient to prevent site turnover, but appear to be sufficient to maintain the overall Canadian population. Ridgeley, R.S., T.F. Dave Martin, Debbie Badzinski, Jon McCracken, and Angela McConnell provided copies of unpublished reports and records prepared for the Acadian Flycatcher/Hooded Warbler Recovery Team. The Canadian distribution of this species was mapped by the first and second Ontario Breeding Birds Atlas (OBBA1 and OBBA2) projects, carried out between 1981–85 and 2001–05, respectively (Cadman et al.
Empidonax virescens. Population status and productivity of Acadian Flycatchers in the Carolinian forest – 2004 Report. 1994; Larson et al. Final report to Environment Canada. Mulvihill. 2002. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Moreover, there are many cases of “new” birds essentially re–colonizing the same territorial space held by their deceased predecessors, demonstrating the highly specific habitat needs of this species. Auk. Lambert, L.R. Little is known about the migratory behaviour of this species (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). The Acadian Flycatcher is also listed as Endangered under Ontario’s Endangered Species Act, 2007 (ESA; Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources 2008a, b). 1999). Hetzel, J.M. Robinson. Using average pairing success (70%) and polygyny (20%) rates for the Ontario population (see Life Cycle and Reproduction), the 2007 count is estimated to consist of approximately 10 unmated territorial males, 18 monogamous pairs, and 4 polygynous groups (each consisting of one male and two females), for a total count of about 56 adults (32 territorial males and 24 paired females). Amacher, R.A. Lancia, J.A. There is no information on its distribution in Ontario prior to the late 1800s, by which time the landscape of southern Ontario had been radically altered by the conversion of the extensive woodlands and wetlands to agricultural cropland and pasture (Austen et al. 2002/2003 Report for Recovery Team Meeting, 7 pp. Burke, D. 2007a. Pennsylvania Breeding Bird Atlas (BBA). Documents. Photo by Tom Friedel ProAves Cerulean Warbler Reserve San Vicente de Chucuri, Santander, Colombia Sizes: Request 1165x1554. comm. Johnson.1984. BirdLife International. Breeding territories may also be largest in dry upland areas and in drought years (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). Territorial males sing frequently throughout the breeding season; females also sing on occasion (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). Landscape Ecology 21:25–537. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY. x + 38 pp. Canadian Atlas of Bird Banding, Volume 1: Doves, Cuckoos, and Hummingbirds through Passerines, 1921–1995. Hooded Warblers are a nationally threatened species, with just 150 to 210 nesting pairs found each year. 706 pp.
In particular, current microhabitat (site and stand)–level information on forest age, canopy closure, and forest structure is not available (OMNR 2006). Brewer, D., A. Diamond, E.J. The best available information on the extent of forest cover for this region is Ontario Land Cover mapping, which uses classified Landsat 7 satellite imagery collected between 1999 and 2002 (OMNR 2006). 1994; Martin 2007). and A.D. Rodewald. They perch on slender branches at middle heights to sing explosive ker-chip! National Recovery Program |
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